Community Observations, Hunting & Handicraft



The information outlined regarding laws and regulations should not be used to make harvesting decisions. Please use the resource links for the full text of the laws and regulations.

The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) is the primary law governing marine mammal management in the United States. Under the MMPA management, a responsibility for sea otter management in the U.S., a responsibility that is carried out by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service within the Department of Interior. Under the MMPA, the Department of Commerce is responsible for pinnipeds (Steller sea lions and harbor seals), a responsibility that is carried out by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 

eCFR :: 50 CFR 18.23 — Native exemptions. 

The MMPA establishes a moratorium on all taking of marine mammals in the United States, including sea otters, Steller sea lions, and harbor seals. However, Section 101(b) of the MMPA provides an exemption to the moratorium for Alaska Natives. Section 101(b) conditions that take of marine mammals by Alaska Natives must be: 

(1) For subsistence purposes, or
(2) For purposes of creating and selling authentic Native articles of handicraft and clothing, and
(3) In each case, not accomplished in a wasteful manner.

Marine Mammal Resources

 The Subsistence Harvest of Harbor Seals and Sea Lions by Alaska Natives in 2004 (technical paper)
The Subsistence Harvest of Harbor Seals and Sea Lions by Alaska Natives in 2004 ( 

Abundance and Distribution of Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris) in the Southcentral Alaska Stock, 2014, 2017, and 2019

Co-Management Agreements of Marine Mammals in Alaska
Marine Mammal Co-management in Alaska | NOAA Fisheries 

Coastal Voices Sea Otter Report
CVReport-Final.pdf ( 

First Nations Perspectives on Sea Otter Conservation in British Columbia and Alaska: Insights into Coupled Human Ocean Systems  
Larson-1611097 ( 

Determination of Alaska Native Status under the Marine Mammal Protection Act

Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA)
Marine Mammal Protection Act – Marine Mammal Commission (

Hunter/Harvester Resources

Subsistence Regulation Posters
Disclaimer: The information outlined on the posters are not the full regulations and should not be used as such. These are meant to be used as summaries/reminders. Please use the resource links for the full laws and regulations.
The Guides Contain Multiple Posters for Multiple Units – Please Mind the Headers on Each Page – Enjoy!

BEAR Subsistence Regulation Posters 

DEER Subsistence Regulation Poster 

FURBEARER Subsistence Regulation Posters 

GOAT & SHEEP Subsistence Regulation Posters 

MARINE MAMMALS Subsistence Regulation Posters 

MIGRATORY BIRDS Subsistence Regulation Posters 

MOOSE Subsistence Regulation Posters 


Alaska Department of Fish and Game 

Office of Subsistence Management

Mariculture Resources

Native Conservancy

Alaska Mariculture Alliance

Alaska Mariculture Research & Training Center

Alaska Fisheries Development Foundation, Inc.

Green Wave

Prince William Sound College


Chugach Region Dictionaries & Language Curriculum
Chugach Artists/Businesses & Handicrafters

 Support Chugach Natives
Support Chugach Natives

Handicraft Guide: What International travelers, shop owners, and artisans need to know
customs_guide_to_ak_native_arts.pdf (

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