Community Observations, Hunting & Handicraft
The information outlined regarding laws and regulations should not be used to make harvesting decisions. Please use the resource links for the full text of the laws and regulations.
The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) is the primary law governing marine mammal management in the United States. Under the MMPA management, a responsibility for sea otter management in the U.S., a responsibility that is carried out by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service within the Department of Interior. Under the MMPA, the Department of Commerce is responsible for pinnipeds (Steller sea lions and harbor seals), a responsibility that is carried out by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
The MMPA establishes a moratorium on all taking of marine mammals in the United States, including sea otters, Steller sea lions, and harbor seals. However, Section 101(b) of the MMPA provides an exemption to the moratorium for Alaska Natives. Section 101(b) conditions that take of marine mammals by Alaska Natives must be:
(1) For subsistence purposes, or
(2) For purposes of creating and selling authentic Native articles of handicraft and clothing, and
(3) In each case, not accomplished in a wasteful manner.
Marine Mammal Resources
→ The Subsistence Harvest of Harbor Seals and Sea Lions by Alaska Natives in 2004 (technical paper)
The Subsistence Harvest of Harbor Seals and Sea Lions by Alaska Natives in 2004 (psu.edu)
→ Abundance and Distribution of Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris) in the Southcentral Alaska Stock, 2014, 2017, and 2019
→ Co-Management Agreements of Marine Mammals in Alaska
Marine Mammal Co-management in Alaska | NOAA Fisheries
→ Coastal Voices Sea Otter Report
→ First Nations Perspectives on Sea Otter Conservation in British Columbia and Alaska: Insights into Coupled Human Ocean Systems
→ Determination of Alaska Native Status under the Marine Mammal Protection Act
→ Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA)
Marine Mammal Protection Act – Marine Mammal Commission (mmc.gov)
Subsistence Regulation Posters
Disclaimer: The information outlined on the posters are not the full regulations and should not be used as such. These are meant to be used as summaries/reminders. Please use the resource links for the full laws and regulations.
The Guides Contain Multiple Posters for Multiple Units – Please Mind the Headers on Each Page – Enjoy!
→ BEAR Subsistence Regulation Posters
→ DEER Subsistence Regulation Poster
→ FURBEARER Subsistence Regulation Posters
→ GOAT & SHEEP Subsistence Regulation Posters
→ MARINE MAMMALS Subsistence Regulation Posters
→ MIGRATORY BIRDS Subsistence Regulation Posters
→ MOOSE Subsistence Regulation Posters
→ Alaska Department of Fish and Game
- Subsistence Hunting, Alaska Department of Fish and Game
- Hunter Education Course, Alaska Department of Fish and Game
- Harvest Data – Subsistence Information, Alaska Department of Fish and Game
→ Office of Subsistence Management
→ Native Conservancy
→ Alaska Mariculture Alliance
→ Alaska Mariculture Research & Training Center
→ Alaska Fisheries Development Foundation, Inc.
→ Green Wave
→ Prince William Sound College
Chugach Region Dictionaries & Language Curriculum
Chugach Region History, Culture & Heritage
→ Chugachmiut Resources Page
Resources – Chugachmiut Heritage Preservation | Chugach Heritage (chugachheritageak.org)
→ THE ALUTIIQ ETHNOGRAPHIC BIBLIOGRAPHY
→ Our Changing Sea